Superintending Engineer v. B. Subba Reddy , AIR 1999 SC 1747: (1999) 4 SCC 423
1. Appeal is a substantive right. It is a creation of the statute. Right to appeal does not exist unless it is specifically conferred.
2. Cross objection is like an appeal. It has all the trappings of an appeal. It is filed in the form of memorandum and the provisions of rule 1 of Order XLI of the Code, so far as these relate to the form and contents of the memorandum of appeal apply to cross-objection as well.
3. Court-fee is payable on cross-objection like that on the memorandum of appeal. Provisions relating to appeals by an indigent person can apply to cross-objection.
4. Even where the appeal is withdrawn or is dismissed for default, cross-objection may nevertheless be heard and determined.
5. The respondent even though he has not appealed may support the decree on any other ground but if he wants to modify it, he has to file cross-objection to the decree which objections he could have taken earlier by filing an appeal. Time for filing objection which is in the nature of appeal is extended by one month after service of notice on him of the day fixed for hearing the appeal. This time could also be extended by the court like in appeal.
6. Cross-objection is nothing but an appeal, a cross-appeal at that. It may be that the respondent wanted to give a quietus to the whole litigation by his accepting the judgment and decree or order even if it was partly against his interest. When, however, the other party challenged the same by filing an appeal the statute gave the respondent a second chance to file an appeal by way of cross objection if he still felt aggrieved by the judgment and decree or order.